Propolis and bacterium inflammation

 

Antibacterial effect of propolis is more expressed on the gram-positive (Streptococcus SP. ,Staphylococcus SP.) than on the gram-negative bacterium (Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (1). In the antibacterial effect more ingredients of propolis are participating.

Propolis stops the multiplication of bacterium by damaging its cytoplasm, cytoplasm membrane and cellular membrane, causes the partial bacterialisis and inhibits the synthesis of proteins (2). When it’s taken with the combination of majority of antibiotics (the penicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, penicillin G, streptomycin, tetracycline, kloksacilin, ceftriakson, chloramphenicol, neomycin, monomicin, oleandomicin, polimiksin, doksiciklin, vancomicin, cefradin, polimiksin B) antibacterical effect is stronger and period of recovery is shorter (3,4,5).

It is interesting that in case when antibiotics (the chloramphenicol, gentamicin, netilmicin, tetracycline, vancomycin, ciprofloksacin) are not functioning on some bacteria (for example Staphylococcus aureus) in combination with propolis they have the antibacterial effect (6,7,8). In cases when antibiogram shows (in vitro) that propolis doesn’t have any effect on some gram-negative bacterias (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), in the organism (in vivo) propolis stimulates immunological system for prevention of inflammatory processes that they cause (9).

In bacterial inflammation (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes) of upper respiratory tracts or in the mouth cavity (Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus bribe, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei) antibiotic therapy can be enhanced in the combination with propolis (10, 11, 12, 13, 14).

Considering the growing resistance (the resistance) of bacterias to antibiotics, its obvious that the revolutionary time of antibiotics is slowly comming to an end (15). Sinergistic enlargement of antibiotic effect in combination with propolis, even in cases when antibiotics alone are not functioning, points out to the promising role of propolis in antibacterial therapy. Since propolis is not toxic, it does not provoke the resistance in the organism and does not damage the normal intestinal fluorine.

Antibacterial effect on the gram-positive bacterias is not significantly different in samples of propolis from the same plant collected in different seasons. In spite of differences in the chemical structure, propolis of different fitogeografical origin is showing the similar antibacterical, antifungus and antivirus activity. Which is why propolis is pharmacologicaly valuable like natural mixture of all substances it contains (NATIVE PROPOLIS), and not like the source of new compounds against microorganisms (16,17,18).

There’s an interesting experience of one known footballer after the operation of ankle joint. Process started with high fever which clearly suggested that it is a strong inflammatory process. The inflammatory process of the ancle joint was caused by MRSA infection (golden staphylococcus , Methicillin-Resistent Staphylococcus aureus). Because that bacterium is very resistant to antibiotics, inflammation which starts lasts very long (becomes chronical) and is very difficult to cure. Thats what happend in this case. Continuation of such state would have the serious consequence on the health, and certainly on career. When he started to take large doses of native propolis (3x3 capsules daily) with the prescribed antibiotic therapy, the inflammatory process completely calmed down. Today he plays football again.

It was scientifically established that propolis effects on next bacterias in a way that it stops their multiplication (bacteriostaticly) or it kills it (bactericidal): Bacillus larvae (19), Bacillus subtilis (20), Helicobacter pylori (21,22), MRSA (the Methicillin-Resistent Staphylococcus aureus), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (23), Staphylococcus SP, Staphylococcus aureus (9,4,20,18,24,4,25), Streptococcus SP., Streptococcus faecalis, Streptomyces (26,34), With. sobrinus, mutans, cricetus (3,27,28), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (29), Escherichia coli (9,4,24,30), Salmonella (30), Bacteroides nodosus (31,32), Klebsiella pneumoniae (17,33), Streptococcus pyogenes (6,25), Proteus vulgaris (1, 17), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17), Streptococcus agalactiae (9), Paenibacillus larvae (35).

LITERATURE:

1. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 1990 Mar;83(3):159-60.
2. Planta Medica 1994 Jun,60(3):222-7.
3. Z Naturforsch [C] 1999 Jul-Aug;54(7-8):549-53.
4. Arzneimittelforschung 1993 May;43(5):607-9.
5. Microbiol Res. 2006;161(4):327-33. Epub 2006 Jan 19.
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7. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2005 Aug;100(5):563-6. Epub 2005 Sep 15.
8. Ophthalmic Res. 2005 Nov-Dec;37(6):328-34. Epub 2005 Aug 6.
9. Planta Medica 1994 Jun,60(3):222-7.
10. J Chemother. 2006 Apr;18(2):164-71.
11. Anaerobe. 2007 Jun-Aug;13(3-4):140-5. Epub 2007 Mar 7.
12. Anaerobe. 2002 Feb;8(1):9-15.
13. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2006 Feb;32(2):229-38.
14. Microbiol Res. 2005;160(2):189-95.
15. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec 1;102(3):371-6. Epub 2005 Aug 3.
16. Acta Pharm. 2003 Dec;53(4):275-85.
17. Vaccine 1992;10(12):817-23.
18. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1991 Aug;16(8):481-2, 512.
19. Apiacta 1982;17:16-20.
20. Z Naturforsch [C] 2000 Sep-Oct;55(9-10):778-84.
21. Przegl Lek 2000;57(4):191-4.
22. Phytomedicine 2001 Jan;8(1):16-23.
23. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Mar. 1990;83(3):159-60.
24. Z Naturforsch [C] 2001 Jan-Feb;56(1-2):82-8.
25. Antibiotiki 1981 Apr;26(4):268-71.
26. Pharmazie 1986 Feb;41(2):131-32.
27. Caries Research 1991;25(5):347-51.
28. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2002 Dec;17(6):337-43.
29. Elsevier Science publishers 1988:439-446.
30. Vopr Med Khim 1986;32(3):45-48.
31. Apimondia Publishing House, Bucharest, Romania, 1978;149-50.
32. Apiacta 1989;XXIV(3):80-81.
33. Apidologie 1991;22(2):155-62.
34. J Ethnopharmacol 2001 Feb;74(2):105-12.
35. J Invertebr Pathol. 2007 Oct 17.

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The influence of propolis on human body

 

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